Monthly Archives: November 2014

Time: The final frontier

Timefleet Academy logo: a winged hourglass made of ammonites

A logo begging for a t-shirt

Here it is: the final incarnation of my design project for Design and Development of Educational Technology– the Timefleet Academy. It’s a tool to assist undergraduate students of historical geology with remembering events in Earth history, and how those events fit into the Geological Time Scale. Much of their work consists of memorizing a long list of complicated happenings. While memorizing is not exactly at the top of Bloom’s Taxonomy (it’s exactly at the bottom, in fact), it is necessary. One could approach this task by reading the textbook over and over, and hoping something will stick, but I think there’s a better way.

I envision a tool with three key features:

  • A timeline that incorporates the Geological Time Scale, and “zooms” to show events that occur over widely varying timescales
  • The ability to add events from a pre-existing library onto a custom timeline
  • Assessments to help students focus their efforts effectively

Here’s an introduction to the problem, and a sketch of my solution. If your sensors start to detect something familiar about this enterprise then you’re as much of a nerd as I am.

Timefleet Academy is based on the constructionist idea that building is good for learning. Making a representation of something (in this case, Earth history) is a way of distilling its essential features. That means analyzing what those features are, how they are related, and expressing them explicitly. Ultimately this translates to the intuitive notion that it is best to approach a complex topic by breaking it into small digestible pieces.

Geological Time Scale

This is what you get to memorize.

As challenging as the Geological Time Scale is to memorize, it does lend itself to “chunking” because the Time Scale comes already subdivided. Even better, those subdivisions are designed to reflect meaningful stages (and therefore meaningful groupings of events) in Earth history.

There is an official convention regarding the colours in the Geological Time Scale (so no, it wasn’t my choice to put red, fuchsia, and salmon next to each other), and I’ve used it on the interface for two reasons. One is that it’s employed on diagrams and geological maps, so students might as well become familiar with it. The other is that students can take advantage of colour association as a memory tool.

Assessments

Assessments are a key difference between Timefleet Academy and other “zoomable” timelines that already exist. The assessments would come in two forms.

1. Self assessment checklists

These allow users to document their progress through the list of resources attached to individual events. This might seem like a trivial housekeeping matter, but mentally constructing a map of what resources have been used costs cognitive capital. Answering the question “Have I been here already?” has a non-zero cognitive load, and one that doesn’t move the user toward the goal of learning historical geology.

2. Drag-and-drop drills

The second kind of assessment involves drill-type exercises where users drag and drop objects representing events, geological time periods, and dates, to place them in the right order. The algorithm governing how drills are set would take into account the following:

  • The user’s previous errors: It would allow for more practice in those areas.
  • Changes in the user’s skill level: It would adjust by making tasks more or less challenging. For example, the difficulty level could be increased by going from arranging events in chronological order to arranging them chronologically and situating them in the correct spots on the Geological Time Scale. Difficulty could also be increased by placing time limits on the exercise, requiring that the user apply acquired knowledge rather than looking up the information.
  • The context of events: If drills tend to focus on the same group of events, the result could be overly contextualized knowledge. In other words, if the student were repeatedly drilled on the order of events A, B, and C separately from the order of events D, E, and F, and were then asked to put A, B, and E in the right order, there could be a problem.

The feedback from drills would consist of correct answers and errors being indicated at the end of each exercise, and a marker placed on the timeline to indicate where (when) errors have occurred. Students would earn points toward a promotion within Timefleet Academy for completing drills, and for correct answers.

Who wouldn’t want a cool new uniform?

How do you know if it works?

1. Did learning outcomes improve?

This could be tested by comparing the performance of a group of students who used the tool to that of a control group who didn’t. Performance measures could be results from a multiple choice exam. They could also be scores derived from an interview with each student, where he or she is asked questions to gauge not only how well events are recalled, but also whether he or she can explain the larger context of an event, including causal relationships. It would be interesting to compare exam and interview scores for students within each group to see how closely the results of a recall test track the results of a test focused on understanding.

For the group of students who have access to the tool, it would be important to have a measure of how they used it, and how often. For example, did they use it once and lose interest? Did they use it for organizing events but not do drills? Or did they work at it regularly, adding events and testing themselves throughout? Without this information, it would be difficult to know how to interpret differences (or a lack of differences) in performance between the two groups.

 2. Do they want to use it?

This is an important indicator of whether students perceive that the tool is helpful, but also of their experience interacting with it. Students could be surveyed about which parts of the tool were useful and which weren’t, and asked for feedback about what changes would make it better. (The option to print out parts of the timeline, maybe?) They could be asked specific questions about aspects of the interface, such as whether their drill results were displayed effectively, whether the controls were easy to use, etc. It might be useful to ask them if they would use the tool again, either in its current form, or if it were redesigned to take into account their feedback.

Timefleet in the bigger picture

Writing a test

All set to pass the test of time

Timefleet Academy is ostensibly a tool to aid in memorizing the details of Earth history, but it actually does something more than that. It introduces students to a systematic way of learning- by identifying key features within an ocean of details, organizing those features, and then testing their knowledge.

The point system rewards students for testing their knowledge regardless of whether they get all of the answers right. The message is twofold: testing one’s knowledge is valuable because it provides information about what to do next; and testing one’s knowledge counts as progress toward a goal even if you don’t get the right answers every time. Maybe it’s threefold: if you do enough tests, eventually you get a cape, and a shirt with stars on it.

Categories: Assessment, Learning strategies, Learning technologies | Tags: , , , , | 3 Comments

Building assessments into a timeline tool for historical geology

In my last post I wrote about the challenges faced by undergraduate students in introductory historical geology. They are required to know an overwhelming breadth and depth of information about the history of the Earth, from 4.5 billion years ago to present. They must learn not only what events occurred, but also the name of the interval of the Geological Time Scale in which they occurred. This is a very difficult task! The Geological Time Scale itself is a challenge to memorize, and the events that fit on it often involve processes, locations, and organisms that students have never heard of. If you want to see a case of cognitive overload, just talk to a historical geology student.

My proposed solution was a scalable timeline. A regular old timeline is helpful for organizing events in chronological order, and it could be modified to include the divisions of the Geological Time Scale. However, a regular old timeline is simply not up to the task of displaying the relevant timescales of geological events, which vary over at least six orders of magnitude. It is also not up to the job of displaying the sheer number of events that students must know about. A scalable timeline would solve those problems by allowing students to zoom in and out to view different timescales, and by changing which events are shown depending on the scale. It would work just like Google Maps, where the type and amount of geographic information that is displayed depends on the map scale.

Doesn’t that exist already?

My first round of Google searches didn’t turn anything up, but more recently round two hit paydirt… sort of. Timeglider is a tool for making “zoomable” timelines, and allows the user to imbed media. It also has the catch phrase “It’s like Google Maps but for time,” which made me wonder if my last post was re-inventing the wheel.

ChronoZoom was designed with Big History in mind, which is consistent with the range of timescales that I would need. I experimented with this tool a little, and discovered that users can build timelines by adding exhibits, which appear as nodes on the timeline. Users can zoom in on an exhibit and access images, videos, etc.

If I had to choose, I’d use ChronoZoom because it’s free, and because students could create their own timelines and incorporate timelines or exhibits that I’ve made. Both Timeglider and ChronoZoom would help students organize information, and ChronoZoom already has a Geological Time Scale, but there are still features missing. One of those features is adaptive formative assessments that are responsive to students’ choices about what is important to learn.

Learning goals

There is a larger narrative in geological history, involving intricate feedbacks and cause-and-effect relationships, but very little of that richness is apparent until students have done a lot of memorization. My timeline tool would assist students in the following learning goals:

  • Memorize the Geological Time Scale and the dates of key event boundaries.
  • Memorize key events in Earth history.
  • Place individual geological events in the larger context of Earth history.

These learning goals fit right at the bottom of Bloom’s Taxonomy, but that doesn’t mean they aren’t important to accomplish. Students can’t move on to understanding why things happened without first having a good feeling for the events that took place. It’s like taking a photo with the lens cap on- you just don’t get the picture.

And why assessments?

This tool is intended to help students organize and visualize the information they must remember, but they still have to practice remembering it in order for it to stick. Formative assessments would give students that practice, and students could use the feedback from those assessments to gauge their knowledge and direct their study to the greatest advantage.

How it would work

The assessments would address events on a timeline that the students construct for themselves (My Timeline) by selecting from many hundreds of events on a Master Timeline. The figure below is a mock-up of what My Timeline would look like when the scale is limited to a relatively narrow 140 million year window. When students select events, related resources (videos, images, etc.) would also become accessible through My Timeline.

Timeline interface

A mock-up of My Timeline. A and B are pop-up windows designed to show students which resources they have used. C is access to practice exercises, and D is how the tool would show students where they need more work.

Students would benefit from two kinds of assessments:

Completion checklists and charts

The problem with having abundant resources is keeping track of which ones you’ve already looked at. Checklists and charts would show students which resources they have used. A mouse-over of a particular event would pop up a small window (A in the image above) with the date (or range of dates) of the event and a pie chart with sections representing the number of resources that are available for that event. A mouse-over on the pie chart would pop up a hyperlinked list of those resources (B). Students would choose whether to check off a particular resource once they are satisfied that they have what they need from it, or perhaps flag it if they find it especially helpful. If a resource is relevant for more than one event, and shows up on multiple checklists, then checks and flags would appear for all instances.

Drag-and-drop exercises

Some of my students construct elaborate sets of flashcards so they can arrange events or geological time intervals spatially. Why not save them the trouble of making flashcards?

Students could opt to practice remembering by visiting the Timefleet Academy (C). They would do exercises such as:

  • Dragging coloured blocks labeled with Geological Time Scale divisions to put them in the right order
  • Dragging events to either put them in the correct chronological order (lower difficulty) or to position them in the correct location on the timeline (higher difficulty)
  • Dragging dates from a bank of options onto the Geological Time Scale or onto specific events (very difficult)

Upon completion of each of the drag-and-drop exercise, students would see which parts of their responses were correct. Problem areas (for example, a geological time period in the wrong order) would be marked on My Timeline with a white outline (D) so students could review those events in the appropriate context. White outlines could be cleared directly by the student, or else by successfully completing Timefleet Academy exercises with those components.

Drag-and-drop exercises would include some randomly selected content, as well as items that the student has had difficulty with in the past. The difficulty of the exercises could be scaled to respond to increasing skill, either by varying the type of drag-and-drop task, or by placing time limits on the exercise. Because a student could become very familiar with one stretch of geologic time without knowing others very well, the tool would have to detect a change in skill level and respond accordingly.

A bit of motivation

Students would earn points for doing Timefleet Academy exercises. To reward persistence, they would earn points for completing the exercises, in addition to points for correct responses. Points would accumulate toward a progression through Timefleet Academy ranks, beginning with Time Cadet, and culminating in Time Overlord (and who wouldn’t want to be a Time Overlord?). Progressive ranks could be illustrated with an avatar that changes appearance, or a badging system. As much as I’d like to show you some avatars and badges, I am flat out of creativity, so I will leave it to your imagination for now.

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How to make sense of historical geology

Imagine that someone changed the clock on you, breaking the day into irregular blocks, and giving the blocks names and symbols in no systematic way. Now imagine that you are given a list of events to memorize- activities of people you don’t know at places with which you are unfamiliar:

Fantasy clock with radiolarians

No, they’re not aliens. They’re radiolarians. And aren’t you glad you don’t use this to tell time?

During the Early Fizz, Pierre Bezukhov and Cthulu squared off on Callisto. By Middle to Late Fizz, Pierre Bezukhov had the advantage, so Cthulu migrated to Kore. At the Fizz-Zoot boundary, Dmitry Dokhturov and a shoggoth appeared on Europa, but both went extinct by the end of the Zoot, likely due to a lack of habitat. Beginning in the Flap, Callisto, Europa, and Taygete began a collision that culminated in their merger by mid-Flap. Land bridges that formed allowed the migration of Anna Mikhaylovna Drubetskaya from her original habitat on Taygete, leaving a niche open, and allowing Nyarlathotep to diversify.

Now stuff that in your head so I can ask you about it on an exam, in no particular order.

If you are familiar with the moons of Jupiter, the characters of War and Peace, or the fiction of H. P. Lovecraft, then you might have a chance at remembering some of the names, but their relationships would probably be new to you. This is the scenario faced by students taking introductory historical geology.

The clock they have to work with is the Geological Time Scale– a way geologists have of carving up Earth’s 4.5 billion years of history into chunks that reflect key events or phases. The chunks are not the same size, and there are chunks within chunks. The exact dates when each chunk (or sub-chunk) starts and ends are moving every few years as geologists get better information about the timing of key events that define the boundaries. There is no system- you just have to memorize it, and you’d better do it in a hurry, because everything you will learn about the Earth’s history will be described in terms of the Geological Time Scale.

Aside from learning this new clock, students must also learn the names of extinct and extant organisms, the names and histories of various continents and oceans, extant or otherwise, and the geological processes that have influenced those organisms, continents, and oceans. Did I mention that students usually have to learn a range of dates, because we can’t be sure of the actual date, and/or because the event happened over millions or hundreds of millions of years? Oh, and one more thing- the dates of different events will overlap to varying degrees, and the story lines will be almost impossible to disentangle from each other. But don’t worry- the exam is multiple choice.

The obvious way to organize all of this information is a timeline, and most textbooks have a version of the Geological Time Scale with some dates and key events marked on it. The problem is that to construct a timeline with all of the information that students need, you would have to devote a book to that alone, so most of these are just Geological Time Scales with some pretty pictures attached. The Geologic Time Spiral (below), showing Earth history spiraling away from the beginning of time, is a classic, and fascinating to look at, but of limited use to my students.  The durations of the events pictured are gross approximations, there is no description of those events, and there is no sense of the spatial changes that occurred. The timeline also glosses over the multiple story lines in Earth history, and the complex interconnections between story lines.

A spiral diagram illustrating the evolution of life on Earth through geological time

Geological Time Spiral: The names of units within the Geological Time Scale are written along the edges.

How to fix it

Make it adapt to scaling

What’s needed is a timeline in electronic format, but not just any timeline- it should be a scalable timeline. Users must be able to zoom out to see big-picture, long-term history, or zoom in to see the finer details. It would be the temporal analog to Google Maps, where the details which appear, including the divisions of the Geological Time Scale itself, depend on the scale. This would solve the problem of the necessarily limited amount of information in current timelines, but it would also do something more important. Users would be able to easily go back and forth between scales to understand how events are situated in a broader context. This is what you do every time you are planning a route to a new address- look at the larger map of the city to see the main thoroughfares, then zoom in to the streets within a particular neighbourhood, then zoom out again to remind yourself where the neighbourhood is relative to the freeway. Then you might zoom in again to the exact address, and depending on the tool you are using, you might look at a picture of the building that you are headed to.

Show cause and effect relationships

In Google Maps, you can see how streets are connected to each other. In Earth history, individual story lines are interconnected in the same way, and the complexity of city streets is probably not a bad analogy for the complexity of these interconnections. The scalable timeline would also show branches that link one story line to other stories, so a user could follow a single timeline, or choose to follow a branch and see how another series of events was impacted by the first story line. Because of how complex the interactions are, these branches would also have to appear or disappear depending on the scale, and depending on which timeline is being viewed.

Add multimedia

Like Google Maps, where resources like photographs, or information like phone numbers are linked to particular points in space, the timeline would have resources linked to a particular point in time, to a broader range of events, or to branches that connect related events. There could be pictures of the organisms that existed, or videos to explain a concept or expand on the details of an event. This would replace the limited images in the timelines that exist at present.

Add a responsive map

The scalable timeline should have an easy way to view the geographic location of a particular event, if it happens to occur in a specific place. This would require an omnipresent world map that lights up in the right spots to correspond to a particular event, but which also changes to reflect the shifting positions of the continents. The map would show where an event happened, but also where climate zones are, where glaciers are present, and where other key contemporaneous events occurred.

Get hypothetical

Hypothetical timelines could be introduced to consider alternative histories. For example, what would have happened if Earth had never been hit by an extraterrestrial object 65 million years ago? Would we even exist if mammals hadn’t been able to take over niches left open by the extinction of the dinosaurs? Or would the dinosaurs have gone extinct anyway for some other reason? Hypothetical timelines could be places to host discussions.

No more Brontosauruses

Brontosaurus illustration from 1896

Brontosaurus, redlined. Skeleton illustration appeared in “The Dinosaurs of North America” by O. C. Marsh (1896)

A timeline of this nature would be much easier to update as new data become available, or as the thinking about Earth history changes. In the popular Golden Guide to Fossils, which some of my students use, there still exists an entry for  Brontosaurus. Brontosauruses were invented by mistake in 1879 because Othniel Charles Marsh was in a rush to publish and didn’t realize that his new dinosaur find was just an adult version of a juvenile dinosaur he had already documented, called Apatosaurus.  The  iconic dinosaur that came to be known as Brontosaurus was actually Apatosaurus with the wrong head attached. The Brontosaurus story could be corrected with a few keystrokes and turned into a teachable moment about the challenges of interpreting paleontological data.

Why would it work?

It would work because narratives are better than lists. The standard timeline offers a way to summarize some of the events in Earth’s history, and to express temporal relationships as spatial ones, but it doesn’t go far enough to make the events into a meaningful whole. A list of seemingly isolated events is just that- a list. It takes context and meaning to make it a story, and stories are things we can remember and understand. There’s a reason you need to write down your grocery list to remember it, but you don’t need notes to be able to relate a relatively trivial story about what your dog did the other day. Whether you get all of the groceries you need or not will likely have a bigger impact on your life than if you can remember your dog story, but if you remember the dog story, it’s because it means something to you. A scalable timeline is a dog story rather than a grocery list because it will make it easy to examine the relationships between events in Earth history, and to synthesize essential details into a meaningful whole.

 

Categories: Learning technologies, Teaching strategies | Tags: , , , , | 2 Comments

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